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Kinematics - Linear and Non-Linear Motion, Projectiles

LINEAR MOTIOIN
  • Distance is the total length moved irrespective of direction.
  • Displacement is the distance in a certain direction.
  • Speed is the distance traveled per unit time irrespective of direction.
  • Velocity is the rate of change of displacement.
  • Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity.
  • Displacement-Time Graph:
    • Gradient = Velocity
NON-LINEAR MOTIOIN
  • Velocity-Time Graph:
    • Gradient = Acceleration
    • Area under graph = Change in displacement
    • Uniform acceleration and straight line motion equations:
      • v = u + at
      • s = ut + 1/2at2          s = vt – 1/2at2
      • s = 1/2(u + v)t           v2 = u2 + 2as
Determining Acceleration of Free Fall

  • A steel ball is held on an electromagnet.
  • When the electromagnet is switched off, the ball interrupts a beam of light and a timer is started.
  • As the ball falls, it interrupts a second beam of light and the timer is stopped.
  • The vertical distance h is plotted against t2
  • s = ut + 1/2at2         and u = 0
  • s = 1/2at2           h = 1/2at2
  • Gradient = h/t2 = 1/2g
  • Acceleration = 2 × g
Motion of Bodies Free Falling

Projectile Motion
  • A projectile motion has a uniform velocity in one direction and a constant acceleration in the perpendicular direction.
  • Horizontal motion = Constant velocity (speed at which the projectile is thrown)
  • Vertical motion = Constant acceleration (Caused by the weight of the object, and constant free fall acceleration)
  • Curved path – parabolic (y ∝ x2)

Motion of a Skydiver

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