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Organization of the Organism

Photo Credit: Britannica.com

Photo Credit: Britannica.com

Cell Organelles
  • Cell Membrane
    • It is the outer membrane of the cell that controls movement in and out of the cell.
  • Cell Wall
    • It most commonly found in plant cells and bacteria
    • It supports and protects the cells
  • Nucleus
    • It directs the cell activities
    • It contains the cell’s DNA (genetic information) in the form of genes
  • Nuclear Membrane
    • It surrounds the nucleus
    • Its openings allow material to enter and leave the nucleus
  • Chromosomes
    • They are found in the nucleus and are made of DNA
    • They contain instructions for traits and characteristics
  • Cytoplasm
    • It is surrounded by the cell membrane and it contains hereditary material
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • It moves materials around in the cell
    • It is of two types:
      • Smooth Type: These lack ribosomes.
      • Rough Type: These have ribosomes embedded in their surface
  • Ribosomes
    • It makes proteins
  • Mitochondria
    • The main function of mitochondria in aerobic is the production of energy by synthesis of ATP
  • Golgi Bodies
    • The Golgi apparatus modifies, sorts, and packages macromolecules for delivery to other organelles or secretion from the cell via exocytosis
  • Vacuoles
    • They are membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waster removal
  • Chloroplast
    • It contains green chlorophyll
    • This is where photosynthesis takes place
Levels of Organization
  • The levels of organization of living things includes cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and organisms.
  • Cell
    • A cell is the basic unit of life.
    • Most cells, when they have finished dividing and growing, they become specialized – This means they carry out only one particular function. Examples include red blood cells, and root hair cells.
    • Ciliated Cells: Used for the movement of mucus in the trachea and bronchi
    • Root Hair Cells: Used for aabsorption
    • Xylem Vessels: Used for conduction and support
    • Palisade Mesophyll Cells: Used for photosynthesis
    • Nerve Cells: Used for conduction of impulses
    • Red Blood Cells: Used for the transport of oxygen
    • Sperm and Egg Cells: Used for reproduction
  • Tissues
    • This level is a combination of different types of cells that have similar structure which perform specialized functions.
    • Examples include nervous tissues, connective tissues, epithelial tissues
  • Organs
    • Organs consist of several tissues grouped together to make a structure with a special function.
    • Organs found in animals include brain, kidney, liver.
    • Organs found in plants include stem, root, leaves
  • Organ System
    • Organs working together to perform certain functions for organ systems.
    • In animals, an example is the circulatory system
    • In plants, an example is the vascular system
  • Organisms
    • An organism is formed by the organs and systems working together to produce an independent plant or animal
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