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KINGDOM ANIMALIA

  • KINGDOM ANIMALIA
    • In this kingdom, the organism are eukaryotes that do not have cell walls.
    • They are heterotrophic, and most reproduce sexually and asexually.
    • Kingdom Animalia is subdivided into 9 phyla:
      • Phylum Porifera – The Sponges
        • They are the simplest form of animals and exist mainly in salt water.
        • They have no tissues or organs.
        • They are asymmetrical.
        • They have a porous body wall.
        • Some species reproduce sexually, while others reproduce asexually.
        • Examples include:
      • Phylum Coelenterata
        • They have two body types: jelly and medusa
        • They are found in marine habitats.
        • Their body wall is made up of two layers called ectoderm and endoderm.
        • They have specialized tissues but do not have organs.
        • Some organisms reproduce sexually, while others reproduce asexually.
        • They have an incomplete digestive system that has an opening to the digestive cavity serving as both mouth and anus.
        • They have a radial symmetry.
        • Examples include:
      • Phylum Platyhelminthes – The Flatworms
        • They are found in fresh water, salt water, and or land.
        • They have flattened bodies made u of three layers called ectodermmesoderm, and endoderm.
        • They have an incomplete digestive system that has one opening to the digestive cavity serving as both mouth and anus.
        • The parasitic worm does not have a digestive system, it absorbs nutrients from the host it inhabits.
        • They have bilateral symmetry.
        • They have tissues, organs, and organ systems.
        • Examples include:
      • Phylum Nematoda – The Roundworms
        • They are found in fresh water, salt water, and on land.
        • The body of a roundworm is divided into three layers; ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. It is long, smooth, and unsegmented.
        • Their cylindrical bodies are tapered at both ends.
        • They have a complete digestive system that has a mouth and an anus.
        • They have bilateral symmetry.
        • Examples include:
      • Phylum Annelida – Earthworm, Leech, Sandworm
        • They are found in freshwater and on land.
        • They have segmented bodies.
        • They have a complete digestive system that has a mouth and a n anus.
        • They have a bilateral symmetry.
        • Examples include:
      • Phylum Arthropoda – Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans, Myriapods
        • Arthropods are ubiquitous.
        • In most anthropods, the body is divided into a head, abdomen, and thorax.
        • The outside skeleton of anthropods is made of chitin which protects the soft body of this animal and prevents water loss allowing them to live successfully on land.
        • They have a bilateral symmetry.
        • ——–
        • Insects
          • Bees, butterfly, mosquitoes, etc.
          • They have three pairs of jointed legs.
          • They have compound eyes.
          • They have two pairs of wings.
          • They have one pair of antennae.

            An Example of an Insect (Photo Credit: Teara.Govt.nz)

        • Arachnids
          • Scorpion, spiders, mites, ticks, etc.
          • Their bodies are divided into cephalothorax and abdomen.
          • They have four pairs of legs.
          • They have several pairs of simple eyes.
          • They have chelicerate for biting and poisoning their prey.

            Examples of an Arachnids (Photo Credit: ResearchGate.net)

        • Crustaceans
          • Crabs, woodlouse
          • Their body is divided into two segments: abdomen and cephalothorax.
          • They have a pair of compound eyes.
          • They have five or more pairs of legs.
          • They have two pairs of antennae.

            An example of a Crustacean – A Crab (Photo Credit: ResearchGate.net)

        • Myrapiods
          • Centipedes, millipedes
          • They have simple eyes.
          • They possess ten or more pairs of legs.
          • They have one pair of antennae.

            An Example of a Myrapiod – A Centipede (Photo Credit: BiologyDiscussion.com)

      • Phylum Mollusca – The Mollusks: Clams, Snails, Oysters, Octopus
        • They are found in fresh water and on land.
        • They mollusks have a soft, unsegmented body.
        • Mollusks are well-known for their tongue-like organ called the radula, which has many rows of teeth and is used to scrape food from the surface of plants and rocks.
        • They have a fold of skin that surrounds the body organs called the mantle that makes secretions which harden to form the shells of mollusks.
        • They have a bilateral symmetry.

          An Example of a Mollusca – A Snail (Photo Credit: TheSnailWrangler.com)

      • Phylum Echinodermata – The Echinoderms: Sea stars, sea urchins
        • They are all found in the marine.
        • Echinoderms have an internal, limy skeleton and a spiny outside surface or skin that give both support and protection.
        • They have a complete digestive system.
        • They have a radial symmetry.

          An Example of an Echinodermata – A Sea Urchin (Photo Credit: BiologyDiscussion.com)

      • Phylum Vertebrates – Fish, Reptiles, Amphibians, Birds, Mammals
        • They are found on land and in water.
        • They have a bilateral symmetry.
        • ————
        • Fish
          • They are cold blooded animals.
          • They are covered with scales and slime.
          • They use their gills for gaseous exchange.
          • They reproduce sexually but the fertilization of the eggs occurs externally.
          • They possess fins that aid their movement.

            An Example of a Fish (Photo Credit: Toppr.com)

        • Amphibians
          • Frogs, toads, newt.
          • They are poikilothermic.
          • Their body is soft and moist.
          • They have four limbs.
          • The young ones use gills for gaseous exchange while the adults use gills and lungs.
          • Fertilization is external.

            An Example of an Amphibian – A Toad (Photo Credit: BiologyDiscussion)

        • Reptiles
          • Lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, tortoise.
          • They are cold blooded animals.
          • Their body is covered with dry scales.
          • Fertilization is external.
          • They all have four limbs except for snakes.
          • They have lungs for gaseous exchange.

            An Example of a Reptile – A Lizard (Photo Credit: BiologyDiscussion.com)

        • Birds
          • Eagles, fowl, pigeon.
          • They are warm blooded (homoiothermic).
          • Their body is covered with feathers and their legs and toes with scales.
          • They have four limbs but the forelimbs are modified to form wings.
          • Fertilization is internal. The female lays eggs with shells that hatch into young ones.
          • They have lungs for gaseous exchange.

            An Example of a Bird – A Falcon (Photo Credit: Etc.Usf.Edu)

        • Mammals
          • Rabbits, goat, humans.
          • They are warm blooded.
          • They are covered with hair.
          • They have four limbs.
          • They have lungs for breathing.
          • Fertilzation is internal. Young ones develop in the mother’s body and are given birth to.

            An Example of a Mammal – A Rabbit (Photo Credit: Joceloaiza.Blogspot.com)

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