The Plant and Animal Cell
- The cell is a single unit of a living organism.
- Cells are seen with the aid of a microscope.
- Unicellular organisms are living things which have just one cell. Examples are amoeba, paramecium, euglena, etc.
- Multi-cellular organisms are living things which have more than one cell. Examples are man, animals, plants, etc.
- Components of a cell include:
- Cell Membrane: This is the outermost covering of the cell. It is thin and permeable to water and salts.
- Cell Wall: It is made up of cellulose. It encloses the outer surface of the cell membrane. It is found in the plant cell. It provides support in the cell.
- Cytoplasm: This is where chemical activities take place in the cell. It contains vacuoles, nucleus, chloroplasts, etc.
- Chloroplasts: These contain a green pigment, called chlorophyll, used in photosynthesis. They are present in only plant cells
- Nucleus: It controls the activities of the cell and it is the center of heredity.
- Vacuole: It is a small cavity which contains the cell sap. In plants, vacuoles are large but few, whereas in animals, they are small but numerous.
The Plant Cell (Photo Credit: CellDiagram.net)
The Animal Cell (Photo Credit: BiologyWise.com)
Differences between Plant and Animal Cells
- Plant cells possess cellulose cell wall while animal cells do not.
- In plant cells, vacuoles are large and few while in animal cells, vacuoles are small and numerous.
- Chloroplasts are present in plant cells but absent in animal cells.
- Plant cells are rectangular in shape while animal cells are oval in shape.
- Plant cells are rigid while animal cells are flexible.
- In plant cells, the nucleus is at the periphery while in animal cells, the nucleus is at the center of the cell.
Similarities between Plant and Animal Cells
- Both cells have nuclei.
- Both cells contain cytoplasms.
- Both cells have vacuoles.
- Both cells have cell membranes.