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Human Reproductive System

The human reproductive system is made up of many parts and organs that collectively function in producing young ones.

Male Reproductive System

The Male Reproductive System (Photo Credit: Google.com)

Organs Functions
Testes Produces the spermatozoa.
Releases sperm.
Sperm ducts Allow passage of sperm into the penis
Penis Releases the sperm into the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse


  • The main organs of the male reproductive system are the penis, testes, and sperm ducts.
  • They are all located below the abdomen of the human body.
  • When at rest, the penis lies flaccid, but when excited, it becomes erect and changes its shape and size as the blood rushes into it.
  • This action makes the penis rigid and able to penetrate into the vagina during sexual intercourse.
  • The scrotum contains two testes that are connected to the penis through tiny tubes called sperm ducts.
  • The testes produce the sperm and the sperm is stored in the sperm sac called scrotum.
  • During sexual intercourse, the sperm is released into the vagina and swims beyond the vagina to meet an egg cell.
  • The nucleus of the two will fuse and this process is referred to asĀ fertilization.
Female Reproductive System

The Female Reproductive System (Photo Credit: Britannica.com)

Organs Functions
Ovaries Produce the eggs.
Release eggs into the oviduct.
Uterus Receive fertilized eggs.
Hold fetus until birth.
Push out matured fetus or baby.
Vagina Provide channel for the entry of sperm into the female reproductive system.
Allows blood to flow out during menstruation in the absence of fertilization.
Provides a channel for mature fetus to come out during child birth.
May provide a channel for the entry of diseases and virus during careless sexual intercourse.


  • The main organs of the female reproductive system are the ovaries, fallopian tube, uterus, and vagina.
  • Ovaries
    • There are two ovaries located in the right and left sides of the back of the abdomen.
    • The two take turns in the release of eggs, at intervals of 28 – 30 days.
    • The released egg is held by a funnel shaped organ the fallopian tube.
  • Fallopian Tube
    • The fallopian tube sets the egg ready for fertilization.
    • It is in this organ that fertilization takes place.
    • It holds the mature egg for a period of 3 – 4 days.
    • If fertilization occurs, the egg is directed by the fallopian tube into the uterus for nourishment, growth and development calledĀ zygote.
    • But if no fertilization occurs, the unfertilized egg shrinks after 3 – 4 days and blood flows out through the vagina as menstruation
  • Vagina
    • It is a muscular organ that leads into the uterus and is the external opening of the female reproductive system.
Puberty and Secondary Sexual Characteristics
  • Puberty is a stage when the male and female reproductive organs mature.
  • This takes place before reproduction.
  • It is the onset of sexual maturity.
  • It is characterized by sexual changes.
  • These changes include:
    Male Female
    Production of sperm Production of eggs
    Deep voice Enlargement of breasts
    Development of muscles Enlargement of buttocks
Importance of Reproduction
  • Reproduction makes the continuity of living things possible.
  • Reproduction ensures the continuity of families.
  • It ensures preservation of species.
  • Reproduction can also bring about variation in human beings.
  • It helps in building up population, i.e. increasing population.
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