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Habitat and Adaptation

HABITAT
  • Habitat is a place where organisms live.
  • There are two major habitats:
    • Aquatic habitat.

      An Aquatic Habitat (Photo Credit: Toppr.com)

    • Terrestrial habitat.

      A Terrestrial Habitat (Photo Credit: Britannica.com)

Aquatic Habitat
  • Aquatic habitat refers to a water environment.
  • The aquatic habitat contains different kinds of plants and animals, e.g. fish, whales, turtles, crocodiles, tadpoles, water lettuce, and water lilies.
  • Aquatic habitat can be subdivided into fresh water and salt water.
  • The place where salt and fresh water meet is called an estuarine. Examples of such areas include bays and lagoons. Organisms found here include periwinkles, lobsters, etc.
  • The Salt Water Habitat – It comprises of seas and oceans. It is also known as marine habitat. Marine plants and animals include weeds, octopus, fish, whales, and dolphins, etc.
  • The Fresh Water Habitat – This includes lakes, rivers, ponds, and streams. Organisms found in fresh water habitat includes fish, crayfish, and crabs.
Terrestrial Habitat
  • Terrestrial habitat refers to the land environment.
  • Organisms found here include humans, domestic animals, wild animals, and plants.
  • The terrestrial habitat can be on the ground, on a tree or under the ground. For example, dogs live on the ground, birds live in trees while earthworms live under the ground.
  • Types of terrestrial habitat include:
ADAPTATION
  • Adaptation is a special feature which helps organisms to survive in a particular habitat.
  • Examples of plant features:
    • Roots.
    • Leaves.
    • Stem.
  • Examples of animal features:
    • Fur.
    • Gills in aquatic animals.
    • Tails.
    • Fins.
Biotic and Abiotic Factors
  • These factors are conditions that affect the survival of organisms.
  • Biotic factors are living factors, e.g. frogs, snails, spirogyra, water lettuce, etc.
  • Abiotic factors are non-living factors, e.g. temperature, light, water, etc.
Population
  • Population are groups of organism of the same kind living in the same place.
  • Population density is the ratio of the population size to the area covered, i.e. size per unit area.
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