Personal hygiene or cleanliness means keeping one’s body, clothes and shoes clean.
Personal Hygiene (Photo Credit: Deltigo.fit)
Methods of Keeping the Body Clean
- Bathe with soap and water at morning and night.
- Cut your fingernails short and keep them clean.
- Brush your teeth with tooth brush and tooth paste first thing in the morning and last thing at night.
- Wash short hair daily and long hair weekly.
- Wash hand with soap and water regularly.
- Clothes should be worn once and washed.
Ways of Keeping Our Homes Clean
- Sweep the floor regularly.
- Clean the windows regularly.
- Dust wooden furniture with dry cloth.
- Wash toilet floor regularly.
- Wash water closet daily with a cleaning chemical.
Advantages of Good Personal Hygiene
- We are healthy.
- Money is saved which otherwise would have been used to pay for medical bills.
- We look neat and attractive.
Consequences of Poor Hygiene
- Germs spread, thus causing diseases.
- Money is spent on hospital bills, rather than other purposes.
- We become unattractive to people.
Food is anything which when eaten and digested, provides energy and helps us grow.
Types of Food
- Solid and liquid food. E.g. Yam, rice, milk, fruit juice.
- Local and imported food. E.g. Beans, sweet potato, pasta, cheese.
- Cereals, vegetables and fruits E.g. Oat, cornflakes, spinach, lettuce, pear, apple.
Classes of Food
- Fats and Oils
- Mineral Salts
Classes of Food (Photo Credit: Settleinelpaso.com)
Classes of Food According to their Functions
- Energy-giving Foods:
- Carbohydrates – These contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. E.g. Rice, yam, bread, potatoes.
- Fats and Oils – These contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. E.g. Margarine, butter, palm oil.
- Body-building Foods:
- Proteins – These contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous. They help in body building, growth, and the repair of worn-out cells. E.g. Eggs, beans, meat, fish.
- Health Preserving Foods: These are foods that keep us healthy. They include:
- Mineral Salts – These are chemical substances which help improve the general health of the body.
- Vitamins – Vitamins keep the body healthy and are found in fruits and vegetables. The classes are:
- Vitamin A
- Source: Tomato, Palm Oil, etc.
- Function: Aids growth and good eye sight.
- Effect of Deficiency: Retards growth and causes night blindness.
- Vitamin B1
- Source: Green vegetables
- Functions: Aids growth
- Effects of Deficiency: Beriberi
- Vitamin B2
- Source: Milk, eggs, etc.
- Functions: Helps in respiration
- Effects of Deficiency: Anemia, Pellagra
- Vitamin C
- Source: Oranges, vegetables, etc.
- Functions: Helps in healing wounds and developing strong bones and teeth
- Effects of Deficiency: Scurvy
- Vitamin D
- Source: Eggs, etc.
- Functions: Adds calcium to bones and teeth
- Effects of Deficiency: Rickets
- Vitamin E
- Source: Liver, eggs, green vegetables, etc.
- Functions: Helps in reproduction
- Effects of Deficiency: Sterility
- Vitamin K
- Source: Green vegetables
- Functions: Helps in blood clotting
- Effects of Deficiency: Blood clots very slowly
- Vitamin A
- Water: This is made up of hydrogen and oxygen. Water makes up 90% of the blood. The following are the functions of water:
- It is necessary for growth
- It is necessary for digestion and absorption
- It helps chemical reactions in the body
- It regulates the body temperature
- It helps in excretion
Balanced Diet or Adequate Diet
This is the meal that contains all the classes of food in the right amount.
Say No to Drug Abuse (Photo Credit: Von.gov.ng)
- A drug is a chemical substance which affects the function of a living organism.
- Drug misuse is the use of a drug for a purpose for which it is not suited.
- Drug abuse is the use of drugs without a doctor’s prescription or recommendation.
- Substance abuse is the abuse of substances, whether they are drugs or not.
- Drug addiction is the dependence of a person on a drug
Causes of Drug Abuse
- Lack of self confidence
- Desire to fit in a peer group
- Search for excitement
- To reduce stress and frustration
Classification of Drugs
- Narcotics – Drugs that make people sleep or relieve pain. E.g. Opium
- Sedatives – They induce sleep and reduce anxiety. E.g. Barbiturates
- Stimulants – They excite the central nervous system. E.g. Caffeine, Cocaine, and Amphetamine
- Tranquilizers – These change am individual’s mood or emotional state. E.g. Valium, and Libirum.
- Hallucinogens – These make an individual unable to separate fact from fantasy. E.g. LSD, and marijuana.