4 Ijesha Close, Ilupeju, Lagos
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Family Health


Personal hygiene or cleanliness means keeping one’s body, clothes and shoes clean.

Personal Hygiene (Photo Credit: Deltigo.fit)

Methods of Keeping the Body Clean
  • Bathe with soap and water at morning and night.
  • Cut your fingernails short and keep them clean.
  • Brush your teeth with tooth brush and tooth paste first thing in the morning and last thing at night.
  • Wash short hair daily and long hair weekly.
  • Wash hand with soap and water regularly.
  • Clothes should be worn once and washed.
Ways of Keeping Our Homes Clean
  • Sweep the floor regularly.
  • Clean the windows regularly.
  • Dust wooden furniture with dry cloth.
  • Wash toilet floor regularly.
  • Wash water closet daily with a cleaning chemical.
Advantages of Good Personal Hygiene
  • We are healthy.
  • Money is saved which otherwise would have been used to pay for medical bills.
  • We look neat and attractive.
Consequences of Poor Hygiene
  • Germs spread, thus causing diseases.
  • Money is spent on hospital bills, rather than other purposes.
  • We become unattractive to people.

Food is anything which when eaten and digested, provides energy and helps us grow.

Types of Food
  • Solid and liquid food. E.g. Yam, rice, milk, fruit juice.
  • Local and imported food. E.g. Beans, sweet potato, pasta, cheese.
  • Cereals, vegetables and fruits E.g. Oat, cornflakes, spinach, lettuce, pear, apple.
Classes of Food
  • Carbohydrate
  • Protein
  • Fats and Oils
  • Vitamins
  • Mineral Salts
  • Water

Classes of Food (Photo Credit: Settleinelpaso.com)

Classes of Food According to their Functions
  • Energy-giving Foods:
    1. Carbohydrates – These contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. E.g. Rice, yam, bread, potatoes.
    2. Fats and Oils – These contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. E.g. Margarine, butter, palm oil.
  • Body-building Foods:
    1. Proteins – These contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorous. They help in body building, growth, and the repair of worn-out cells. E.g. Eggs, beans, meat, fish.
  • Health Preserving Foods: These are foods that keep us healthy. They include:
    1. Mineral Salts – These are chemical substances which help improve the general health of the body.
    2. Vitamins – Vitamins keep the body healthy and are found in fruits and vegetables. The classes are:
      • Vitamin A
        • Source: Tomato, Palm Oil, etc.
        • Function: Aids growth and good eye sight.
        • Effect of Deficiency: Retards growth and causes night blindness.
      • Vitamin B1
        • Source: Green vegetables
        • Functions: Aids growth
        • Effects of Deficiency: Beriberi
      • Vitamin B2
        • Source: Milk, eggs, etc.
        • Functions: Helps in respiration
        • Effects of Deficiency: Anemia, Pellagra
      • Vitamin C
        • Source: Oranges, vegetables, etc.
        • Functions: Helps in healing wounds and developing strong bones and teeth
        • Effects of Deficiency: Scurvy
      • Vitamin D
        • Source: Eggs, etc.
        • Functions: Adds calcium to bones and teeth
        • Effects of Deficiency: Rickets
      • Vitamin E
        • Source: Liver, eggs, green vegetables, etc.
        • Functions: Helps in reproduction
        • Effects of Deficiency: Sterility
      • Vitamin K
        • Source: Green vegetables
        • Functions: Helps in blood clotting
        • Effects of Deficiency: Blood clots very slowly
  • Water: This is made up of hydrogen and oxygen. Water makes up 90% of the blood. The following are the functions of water:
    • It is necessary for growth
    • It is necessary for digestion and absorption
    • It helps chemical reactions in the body
    • It regulates the body temperature
    • It helps in excretion

Balanced Diet or Adequate Diet

This is the meal that contains all the classes of food in the right amount.


Say No to Drug Abuse (Photo Credit: Von.gov.ng)

  • A drug is a chemical substance which affects the function of a living organism.
  • Drug misuse is the use of a drug for a purpose for which it is not suited.
  • Drug abuse is the use of drugs without a doctor’s prescription or recommendation.
  • Substance abuse is the abuse of substances, whether they are drugs or not.
  • Drug addiction is the dependence of a person on a drug
Causes of Drug Abuse
  • Curiosity
  • Lack of self confidence
  • Desire to fit in a peer group
  • Search for excitement
  • To reduce stress and frustration
Classification of Drugs
  • Narcotics – Drugs that make people sleep or relieve pain. E.g. Opium
  • Sedatives – They induce sleep and reduce anxiety. E.g. Barbiturates
  • Stimulants – They excite the central nervous system. E.g. Caffeine, Cocaine, and Amphetamine
  • Tranquilizers – These change am individual’s mood or emotional state. E.g. Valium, and Libirum.
  • Hallucinogens – These make an individual unable to separate fact from fantasy. E.g. LSD, and marijuana.