Parts of Speech - The Adjectives
The adjective is a word used to describe a noun or a pronoun, or give more information about them. E.g. black shoe, only him
Kinds of Adjectives
- Adjective of Quality: This describes the kind, state, or quality of a person, animal, place, or thing. E.g. big, white, bitter, ugly, pretty, etc.
- Adjective of Quantity: This describes quantity and degree. E.g. several, some, a little, a lot of, one, twenty, first, second, tenth, etc.
- Possessive Adjective: This denotes ownership/possession, extent/duration. For example:
- A day’s work (extent/duration)
- John’s bicycle (ownership)
- Demonstrative Adjective: It points in a definite manner to nouns. E.g. this book, these books, that book, such book, etc.
- Interrogative Adjectives: It seeks to ask questions using which, what, whosoever, etc. E.g. What plans do you have?
- Distributive Adjective: This means references that are taken singly or separately. E.g. each, every, neither, either, etc.
- Comparative Adjective: It is of three degrees, positive, comparative, and superlative.
- Comparatives compare two things while superlative compares more than two things.
- E.g. tall, taller, tallest; good, better, best; intelligent, more intelligent, most intelligent
Order of Adjectives
- This establishes the right position of words when more than one adjective is used to modify a noun.
- Noun used as a modifier. E.g. flower pots
- Nationality. E.g. African flower pots
- Color. E.g. Red, African flower pots
- Shape. E.g. Round, red, African flower pots
- Size. E.g. Big, round, red, African flower pots
- Quality. E.g. New, big, round, red, African flower pots
Formation of Adjectives
- Adjectives from Nouns: The following adjectives are formed from nouns with the suffix ‘less’, ‘full’, ‘y’, and ‘al’
- -less: childless, motionless, powerless, senseless, speechless, etc.
- -ful: spoonful, powerful, mindful, wasteful, careful, etc.
- -y: handy, crowdy, rainy, moody, watery, etc.
- -al: national, rational, emotional, sensational, sentimental, etc.
- Adjectives from Verbs: With the suffix ‘able’, ‘ible’, ‘ant’, ‘ed’, ‘some’, ‘worthy
- -able: workable, manageable, readable, understandable, agreeable, etc.
- -ible: divisible, convertible, negligible, responsible, discernible, etc.
- -ant: repellant, expectant, malignant, etc.
- -ed: ragged, crooked, blessed, dogged, legged
- -some: loathsome, burdensome, troublesome, irksome, quarrelsome, etc.
- -worthy: trustworthy, creditworthy, noteworthy, praiseworthy, etc.
- Adjectives from Traditional Adjectives:
- kind – kindly,
- small – smallish,
- black – blackish,
- hard – hardy,
- dead – deadly, etc.